Here we can see, “Become a Linux Terminal Power User”
There’s more to using the Linux terminal than simply typing commands into it. Learn these basic tricks, and you’ll be on your thanks to mastering the Bash shell, employed by default most Linux distributions.
This one’s for the less experienced users – I’m sure that many of you advanced users out there already know of these tricks. Still, take a glance – maybe there’s something you missed along the way.
Tab completion is an important trick. It’s an excellent time-saver, and it’s also useful if you’re unsure of a file or command’s exact name.
For example, let’s say you’ve got a file named “really long file name” within the current directory, and you would like to delete it. You’ll type the whole file name, but you’d need to escape the space characters properly (in other words, add the \ character before each space) and might make an error. If you type rm r and press Tab, Bash will automatically fill the file’s name certain you.
Of course, if you’ve got multiple files within the current directory that begin with the letter r, Bash won’t know which one you would like. For example, let’s say you’ve got another file named “really very long file name” within the current directory. Once you hit Tab, Bash will fill within the “really\ “part since the files begin there. After it does, press Tab again, and you’ll see an inventory of matching file names.
Continue typing your required file name and press Tab. during this case, we will type an “l” and press Tab again, and Bash will fill in our desired file name.
This also works with commands. Unsure what command you would like, but realize it begins with “gnome”? Type “gnome” and press Tab to ascertain an inventory.
Pipes allow you to send the output of a command to a different command. Within the UNIX philosophy, each program may be a small utility that does one thing well. for instance, the ls command lists the files within the current directory. Therefore the grep command searches its input for a specified term.
Combine these with pipes (the | character), and you’ll look for an enter the present directory. the subsequent command searches for the word “word”:
ls | grep word
The * character – that’s, the asterisk – may be a wild card that will match anything. for instance, if we wanted to delete both “really long file name” and “really very long file name” from the present directory, we could run the subsequent command:
This command deletes all files with file names beginning with “really” and ending with “name.” Of course, if you ran rm * instead, you’d delete every enter the present directory, so take care.
The > character redirects a command’s output to a file rather than another command. for instance, the subsequent line runs the ls command to list the files within the current directory and, rather than printing that list to the Terminal, it prints the list to a file named “file1” within the current directory:
ls > file1
Bash remembers a history of the commands you type into it. You’ll use the up and down arrow keys to scroll through commands you’ve recently used. The history command prints an inventory of those commands, so you’ll pipe it to grep to look for commands you’ve used recently. There are many other tricks you’ll use with Bash history, too.
~, . & ..
The ~ character – also referred to as the tilde – represents the present user’s home directory. So, rather than typing cd /home/name to travel to your home directory, you’ll type cd ~ instead. This also works with relative paths – cd ~/Desktop would switch to the present user’s desktop.
Similarly, the. Represents the present directory and therefore, the .. represents the directory above the present directory. So, cd .. goes up a directory. These also work with relative paths – if you’re in your Desktop folder and need to travel to the Documents folder, which is within the same directory because of the Desktop folder, you’ll use the cd ../Documents command.
Run a Command in the Background
By default, Bash executes every command you run within the current Terminal. That’s normally fine, but what if you would like to launch an application and continue using the Terminal? For example, if you type firefox to launch Firefox, Firefox will take over your Terminal and display error messages and other output until you shut it. So add the & operator to the top of the command to possess Bash to execute the program within the background:
You can even have Bash run two commands, one after another. The second command will only execute if the primary command is completed successfully. to try to to this, but both commands on an equivalent line, separated by a &&, or double ampersand.
For example, the sleep command takes a value in seconds, counts down, and completes successfully. It’s useless alone, but you can use it to run another command after a delay. The following command will wait five seconds, then launch the gnome-screenshot tool:
sleep 5 && gnome-screenshot
15 Essential Tips for Ubuntu Linux Power Users
Want to urge better at using Linux? These Ubuntu tips and tricks will assist you in becoming an influence user in no time.
Using Linux distros like Ubuntu can take some getting won’t to. If you’ve switched from Windows or Mac, it are often jarring. After all, it is often overwhelming with a choice of desktop environments, file managers, and ways to put in software.
Think the training curve is steep? Re-evaluate. While Linux has much to require, you’ll become an influence user in minutes with these Ubuntu tricks and tips.
1. Get Lightning Fast at the Command Line
If you’re using Linux, it is sensible to urge to understand the instruction app, Terminal. This provides deeper access to your Linux computer, goodbye as you recognize the proper commands.
All things are often wiped out the Terminal, e.g., editing text files, connecting to Wi-Fi, and more. While working within the instruction, keyboard shortcuts can help to shorten steps and save time.
Linux features some instruction shortcuts. For instance, you’ll use the up and down arrows on your keyboard to cycle through previous commands. Or use Tab to finish partial commands and even file and directory names.
2. Launch Ubuntu Linux Applications With a Keyboard Shortcut
One of the simplest Ubuntu tips is to embrace the facility of keyboard shortcuts.
While using the mouse to click an icon might sound quick, or maybe hitting the Super key to start out inputting the app name, there is a faster option.
The first nine applications within the Ubuntu launcher (by default down the left side of the desktop) are assigned numbers. You’ll open any of them using Super + 1 to 9. Further, if you would like a replacement window for an already open app, use Shift alongside the shortcut.
3. Make Ubuntu Remember the Last Session
Ubuntu are often configured to recollect the applications you had open in your last session before logging out. This is often a useful shortcut if you cannot successfully hibernate or put Ubuntu into sleep mode.
It relies on the gnome-session setting, which is accessed in dconf Editor. you will need to put in this using
sudo apt install dconf-editor
By setting the applications to reopen automatically, you’ll save time once you log back in. However, while you would possibly save a couple of mouse clicks, the pc will probably require slightly longer to load.
In the Terminal, enter.
On the desktop, dconf Editor will open. Expand org > gnome and choose gnome-session. Here, find auto-save-session within the right-hand pane and place a sign up the box. Click X to shut the window.
Test this works by leaving your browser running and logging out. Once you log back in, the app should be running. Couple this with a browser that supports session management to resume browsing for the simplest results.
4. Create a Separate Ubuntu Linux Home Partition
New versions of Ubuntu arrive every six months. Although you’ll upgrade to the newest version via the update manager, sometimes the upgrade doesn’t work. As such, it knows to consider a fresh install.
The disadvantage with an upgrade is that you can lose personal data from your home directory. Archiving data is wise, but a better solution that avoids backing up and restoring files may be a dedicated home partition.
You can create this once you first install Ubuntu. It are often sized to satisfy your needs, so confirm you specify enough space for all of your files. Then, once you plan to install Linux again, specify the partition as Home (use /home because the mount point).
All your files and data on the house partition will be preserved even after a fresh install.
5. Be Sure to Install a Full Upgrade
You may know that a method to upgrade a Debian-based Linux distro like Ubuntu is to use the upgrade command. Faraway from the Terminal, you’ll await the upgrade to be issued via the update manager.
But often, once you run upgrades, not everything is upgraded. Certain packages are left in situ, usually if required for specific apps to figure. If you would like to run an entire upgrade that removes those packages, use
sudo apt full-upgrade
6. Kill Unresponsive Processes Quickly
All operating systems suffer from unresponsive programs. The smart solution is to shut the software and check out again.
In Linux, you’ve got several ways to try to to this. There’s the X within the corner of the appliance window, but Ubuntu also features a System Monitor tool for locating and killing processes. Additionally, the Terminal are often wont to end unresponsive apps and processes with various “kill” commands.
7. Use PPAs for Bleeding Edge Software Releases
The software goes through various stages before it are often released to most Ubuntu repositories. Testing and revision increase stability, but you do not get the latest software released unless you recognize where to see it.
Before software is added to a repository, it are often found in Personal Package Archives (PPAs). Once a PPA address is added to Ubuntu’s list of repositories, applications are often installed from it.
Remember, however, that running the newest pre-release version of an app may result in unexpected errors. Also, while PPAs are a sensible option, they are not secure. So make certain to get rid of the PPA address after installation.
8. I Am Root
The root account is disabled by default Ubuntu, mainly to stop you from making serious mistakes.
Issuing the incorrect command as root can have devastating consequences. For instance, it’s possible to delete all of your data accidentally. Confident you will not do this?
A power user tip for Ubuntu is to enable root. It appears to be deleted but is just hidden. To enable root in Ubuntu, enter.
This requires you to make a replacement password which may then be used with the basic account.
Note, however, that it’s safer to use sudo for command-by-command elevated permissions easily. Just enter your password when prompted.
If you’ve got chosen to enable root and provides it a password, you’ll disable it again with
sudo passwd -l root
9. Use the Latest Graphics Drivers
Support for the newest video card drivers are available for Linux. Using the proper driver for your video card can make all the difference for graphics-intensive tasks. It doesn’t matter whether you’re gaming or editing video—the best graphics drivers are vital.
In most cases, Linux users use drivers for the Intel graphics chip, which is integrated with the motherboard. In some cases, this could be the sole video chip available.
But if the pc has an AMD or Nvidia chip or full graphics card.
Open source and proprietary drivers are available for cards from both manufacturers. Ubuntu makes it easy to seek out, choose, and install the simplest graphics drivers.
10. Try Different Ubuntu Linux Desktop Environments
Unlike Windows 10 and macOS, Linux distros like Ubuntu offer a choice of desktop environments. These are typically available as individual installations, although some distros, like Ubuntu, are often installed with alternative desktop environments preinstalled.
For example, Ubuntu comes in several flavors:
- Ubuntu vanilla (ships with the GNOME desktop)
- Kubuntu (Ubuntu plus KDE)
- Lubuntu (Ubuntu plus LXQt)
- Ubuntu Budgie (adds the Budgie desktop)
- Ubuntu MATE (simple, classic Ubuntu desktop)
- Xubuntu (Ubuntu plus Xfce)
So, you’ll either install a whole alternative version of Ubuntu or add a desktop manager manually.
Installing a replacement Linux desktop is simple but occasionally requires an additional package. for instance, to put in Xfce on Ubuntu, use
sudo apt install xfce4
After installation, you will be prompted to pick the new desktop choice subsequent time you login to Ubuntu.
11. Change the Default File Manager
Ubuntu uses the GNOME Files tool for browsing files and drives on your computer. It’s what you employ to look at the pictures you’ve downloaded or the documents you’ve created.
Also referred to as Nautilus, the default file manager are often swapped for an alternate.
Various alternatives are available, some offering faster Performance and few features, others with extra functions bundled in.
Popular alternatives to GNOME Files include
- Pantheon Files
Most alternative file managers will run on Ubuntu with no trouble.
12. Compile your own Kernel
If you are looking for a weekend project, why not built Linux a kernel to specifically meet your requirements?
This is frankly more of a learning experience. While some might argue that it allows you to use only the features and drivers you need, it is always unnecessary. If everything is functioning fine with the kernel supplied and you are not interested in trying to vary that, you’ll skip this.
However, if you’re determined to urge your hands dirty within the kernel, check our guide to compiling the Linux kernel.
13. Utilize the Swap Partition to Improve Performance
A great Ubuntu trick for enhancing Performance is to use the swap partition. This is often a memory management method for using spare disc space as RAM overflow. However, they are often customized, tweaked for your benefit.
If your disk drive is large enough, you’ll expand the swappiness value and utilize the hard disc for RAM. The result’s a Linux system that performs faster.
Note that hacking the Ubuntu swap partition isn’t a science and works on slower hard disc drives. There’s also a risk of additional wear to your HDD.
14. Run Windows in a Virtual Machine
Missing Windows or got to use software that does not have a Linux version? You would possibly be tempted back to the dark side, but there’s an easier option: install Windows inside Linux.
This is possible because of virtualization. For example, virtual PC are often created using software like VMware or Virtualbox. An alternate is QEMU, although this is often more suitable to experienced users because it relies on detailed instruction configuration.
With a Windows virtual machine installed in Linux, you’ll power it up and use the app you’re missing. It runs alongside other Linux apps, so you’ll switch to your Ubuntu desktop at any time.
15. Take Ubuntu Everywhere With a Live USB Disk
Perhaps the simplest Ubuntu computer user trick is to hold the OS around in your pocket.
With a Live CD installed to a bootable USB stick, you’ll use Ubuntu on almost the other computer. Goodbye because the USB port can boot live drives, and therefore, the stick is suitable; you will be running Ubuntu in moments.
You might even stick your favorite portable apps on there, too, for fast productivity.
Become a Linux Power User With These Ubuntu Tricks
By now, you ought to have a handle on the simplest Ubuntu tips and hacks, which will turn you into a Linux pro.
From the instruction to employing a different file manager and even compiling your own Linux kernel, Linux distros like Ubuntu are hugely customizable. Linux allows you to do whatever you want—and then some.
I hope you found this guide useful. If you’ve got any questions or comments, don’t hesitate to use the shape below.
- What is $? In Linux?
The $? variable represents the previous command’s exit status. As a rule, most commands return an exit status of 0 if they were successful and 1 if unsuccessful. However, some commands return additional exit statuses for particular reasons.
- What is $0 shell?
$0 Expands to the name of the shell or shell script. This is often set at shell initialization. For example, if Bash is invoked with a file of commands (see Section 3.8 [Shell Scripts], page 39), $0 is about to the name of that file.
- What is the XXD command?
DESCRIPTION. xxd creates a hex dump of a given file or standard input. It also can convert a hex dump back to its original binary form. Thus, like uuencode(1) and uudecode(1), it allows the transmission of binary data during a ‘fail-safe ASCII representation but has the advantage of decoding to plain output.
- How to become an influence user?
- Is it just needed to find out the terminal(commands)?
Is it must needed to learn the terminal(commands)? from linuxquestions